Terra Galleria Photography

Steps behind the image: Keno Road Fir

Although paved, the Keno Access Road, in the northeast corner extension of Cascade Siskiyou National Monument was so remote that I hardly saw any other car on it. This made it possible to drive slowly enough to look for photographs, a normally hazardous proposition for the solo driver. One of the advantages of going on a trip with one or companions is that you can have a designated driver, while others are free to look around.

Cascade Siskiyou National Monument doesn’t have too many roadside views, and the Keno Access road is no exception, as there are only a few spots where the horizon is not blocked by trees. I looked for smaller scenes, and since the monument carries one of the three most rich conifer forests in the world, I envisioned a portrait of a conifer tree. Those trees are often quite dark, but what struck me was how the greens of some of the firs had a bright, almost electric hue. Here is the wider scene, as almost seen from the windshield.

Is there a photograph here? To find out, you have to try, and after reading this post, you’ll know what I mean by trying. I made no fewer than eight adjustments. The first was obvious. After getting out of the car, I moved closer and cropped out the road:

Out of the trees present in the picture, the one that caught my eye was at the left, because its greens were so brilliant and it had such a regular and steep shape. In the previous composition, it is dominated by the other dark trees, so I moved to the right and pointed the camera left to remove them from the composition.

The base of the tree merges with the background forest in a mass of green. To detach it, I move in closer. This makes the foreground tree larger relative to the background, and also let the point the lens up. Notice that although the composition appears more tight compared to the previous image, I did not zoom in. In the previous image, the lens was set up at 70mm, whereas it is now set up at 55mm. Zooming in preserves the relative perspective, whereas changing the viewpoint changes the relative perspective.

Can the foreground tree be better separated from the background? Yes, by moving just a bit to the left, I introduce a bit of sky between the main tree and the one located behind and left of it. I liked that the inverse slope of the branches paralleled the slope of the background tree.

With that image, I achieved the goal of making a clear portrait of the tree that attracted me to the scene, but the image feels a bit too simple for my taste. From a visual point of view, it lacks a counterpoint to the main tree, one that would hint to the idea biological diversity. One of the components of my “style”, for a lack of better word, is my predilection for information-rich images.

I go back to the drawing board, and include again the dark conifer on the right. This time, compared with the initial composition, my closer position gives the main tree a prominent position in the image, and I like the contrast created by the darker greens.

However, the rocks at the bottom left corner are a distraction in a scene which is all about shades of green. Making it worse, they are brighter than the vegetation. Bright objects draw the eye, and those rocks are certainly not something I want to draw attention to. To hide them, I adopt a lower viewpoint sitting down on the pavement – thanks for the lack of traffic! Most of the rocks are now hidden by bushes.

Like in a previous step, there is overlap between the main tree and the one on the right. I moving a bit to the right, but I cannot totally eliminate it without introducing overlap between the main tree and the one on the left. At least I partially limit it by aligning one of the gaps between foreground branches with a background branch. At this point, I found the optimal camera position.

I finish by refining the framing. Moving to the right introduced some stray branches at the left edge of the frame. Often, elements like that along the edge detract from the composition by pulling your eye towards the edge and then outside the frame as the eye follows them, rather than keeping it in the picture. I zoom in a bit to clean up that edge.

Here you are, nothing “epic” or even particularly remarkable, but instead a mundate scene where composition choices, which are essentially limited to camera position, changed no less than eight times, made something (hopefully) out of a few trees and a cloudless sky.

Cascade Siskiyou Beyond Pilot Rock

Most travelers identify Cascade Siskiyou National Monument with Pilot Rock, whose distinctive profile can be seen from both directions of I-5 between Oregon and California. In this article, I describe four other favorite locations in the monument and discuss some of the photographs I made there. Except for the last one, all of them require a bit of hiking. Because Cascade Siskiyou National Monument is heavily forested and all below treeline, there are not too many roadside views in the monument. Pilot Rock is not forgotten, though, as it is seen from all over the monument, and it will serve to link those locations, kind of like in Hokusai’s 36 views.

(this is the best available map, click to enlarge)

Boccard Point

Boccard Point, in the Soda Mountain Wilderness at the south of the monument, is a bluff located in juniper scablands that offered the best views that I found within the monument. I thought they were spectacular than Pilot Rock because at Pilot Rock, when you are at the base, views are limited by the rock, while the top of the rock is quite narrow, therefore not offering a range of viewpoints. On the other hand, the last quarter-mile of the trail to Boccard Point follows a ridge with open views. This lets you choose from a range of different foregrounds to the expansive views that include the three mountain ranges converging in Cascade Siskiyou National Monument.

The main trail from the Hobart Bluff Trailhead, is 10-mile (RT) with 1,500 feet elevation gain. In 2014, the Siskiyou Mountain Club cut a new trail into an old road from the Pacific Crest Trail (PCT) to Boccard Point. It remains quite primitive with faint and rough sections, but reduces the hike to 4 miles RT. That trail was recent enough that Ashland-based noted photographer and educator Sean Bagshaw, with whom I had the pleasure to hike, had not been there yet. To get to the trailhead from Hwy 66, take Buckhorn Springs Road (unpaved from there, but easily passable like most roads in the monument), Tyler Creek Road, then Baldy Creek Rood until you see a small parking area on the left crossed by the Pacific Crest Trail (PCT), and look for a faint path heading east. Boccard Point is marked on the official map, but is a quiet destination. I saw a party on the PCT, but we had the rest of the trail to ourselves.

Hobbart Bluff

Hobart Bluff Trailhead gives access to two moderate trails. The Soda Mountain Lookout (4 miles RT) offers views that extend to Pilot Rock and Mount Shasta, but the last mile is a bit of a trudge on an old road and the summit itself is uninspiring because it is full of structures and communications equipment. My favorite part of that hike was the first mile on the PCT where in late June wildflowers abound in the meadows. After making the wide view in sunny conditions, I waited for a passing cloud to photograph a more intimate view of the meadow excluding the sky without the distractions created by shadows and high contrast.

Hobart Bluff is a 3-mile RT hike with 240 feet elevation gain passing old-growth forest and rolling meadows along the way. The views to the north open far. I did not want a highly magnified foreground to compete for attention and scale with the sunrays, so I composed with the wildflowers at some distance, and similarly I felt that a distant foreground balanced the hills better.

To the south, the views are limited by a ridge and the presence of a power line. Photographing in that direction, I made my composition about the contrast between the chaotic foreground and the regular pattern of conifers.

Grizzly Peak

Cascade Siskiyou National Monument, as proclaimed by President Clinton in 2000, initially covered 65,000 acres. At the urging of scientists, in 2017 President Obama extended the monument by 48,000 acres. Grizzly Peak and the surrounding Rogue Valley foothills in the northwest corner of the expansion area are home to rare populations of plant species such as rock buckwheat, Baker’s globemallow, and tall bugbane. I wouldn’t be able to identify those, but I delighted in some of the more than 275 species of flowering plants found there. The Grizzly Park Loop Trail is a favorite hike for locals. The lollipop loop (5 miles, 840 feet elevation gain) leads to to big views, all the more open because the forest near the top burned. By hiking counter-clockwise, you save the best views for last.

Before passing some of the most beautiful meadows I’ve seen in the monument, the trail starts in the forest. Right at the start of the trail, in the afternoon, a backlit tree on a hillside caught my eye. It appears small in the high-contrast composition but that is precisely why it brings more depth to it. The next morning, before sunrise, the exact same scene looked entirely different as the soft, but directional light revealed the deep palette of greens, the forest’s texture, and the lush forest floor.

Hyatt Lake

Unlike several of the primitive national monuments I wrote about recently, Cascade Siskiyou is quite close to a city (Ashland), and has reasonable amenities that include restrooms, well-signed trails and trailheads. At the hamlet of Green Springs, near the intersection of Hwy 66 and East Hyatt Lake Rd, there is an information station where you can pick up a useful free map, and a lodge with a restaurant. You could also stay at a fully developed campground on the shore of Hyatt Lake. Other free primitive campgrounds are available, and like in most BLM-managed national monuments, dispersed camping is also allowed.

When I came to the Hyatt Lake lakeshore in the afternoon, the wind churned the water. This eliminates any reflections, and makes the water look darker. Returning the next day in the early early morning, I found the water glassy as I hoped, and as a bonus a thin layer of fog rose at one spot in the lake. I promptly made my way around the lake to head closer to it.

My first instinct was to exclude the sky to keep the focus on the band of light formed by the fog, with the dark band of trees keeping the eye in the picture. However, I also liked that the sun and the rock seemed to be in dialog with each other. I stopped down the lens to f/22 to make a sun star and tried a wide view from the same viewpoint, framing the image so that the line formed by the shore would originate in the right bottom corner of the image and remain clear from the image frame. Since what attracted me to the wider composition was the balance between the sun and the rock, I made it stronger by moving the camera to align them vertically. The shallow arm of water was now vertical rather than oblique, so we have also the bright vertical line of the sun reflection balance the horizontal bright line formed by the fog. Do you think the small change of viewpoint made a difference?

Pilot Rock, Cascade Siskiyou National Monument

Our planet is experiencing a mass extinction at a scale unprecedented since the demise of dinosaurs 65 million years ago (UN Report, Center for Biological Diversity). Public lands can act as sanctuaries for biodiversity. In 1947, Everglades National Park was the first large tract of land protected not for its scenic value, but for the benefit of the unique diversity of life it sustained. However, it wasn’t until 2000 that a national monument was established solely for the protection of biodiversity: Cascade-Siskiyou National Monument in Southern Oregon.

(click to enlarge)

More than 3,500 species of plants and animals live in the Klamath Mountains ecoregion, making it one of the three most biodiverse conifer forests in the world – the other two are in the American Southeast and the Primorye region of the Russian far east. Why is such a relatively small place (114,000 acres) so biodiverse? The monument is situated at the convergence of the Klamath (to the southwest), Cascade (to the north), and Siskiyou (to the west) mountain ranges, and is also an interface of the Sierra Nevada (to the south) and Great Basin Desert (to the east) ecoregions. The Cascade Range is relatively young, where the Siskiyous are the oldest mountains in Oregon, and the complex geology contributes to a variety of soil types. The Siskiyous are unusually oriented east-west, facilitating migrations with the coastal ranges, and they became a refuge during the last ice age, as they were not heavily glaciated.

Pilot Rock

Unlike national parks, large national monuments usually lack an iconic landmark. That’s not the case of Cascade-Siskiyou National Monument, which has Pilot Rock, known by that name since pioneer days, when it served as a landmark to travelers crossing the Siskiyou Pass between Oregon and California. The rock is a volcanic plug, a remnant of a vent left after a volcano eroded away, leaving a trace of the inside of a volcano. Pilot Rock has vertical basalt faces 400 feet high, with columnar jointing similar to the Devil’s Tower.

To get to Pilot Rock’s trailhead, take Exit 6 (Mt Ashland) on I-5, and follow Old Hwy 99 and then an unpaved access road. The trailhead is close enough to the freeway that if you are traveling it, you should consider making a stop. The hike to the base of the rock is about 3 miles (RT) with 625 feet elevation gain, mostly in the 0.75 mile after you leave the Pacific Crest Trail (PCT). Hiking in the late Friday afternoon, I did not see anybody else at the site, and the rock loomed impressively above with steep walls. Intending to climb to the top, I began to scramble up a wide chimney, but faced with a steep chockstone, I elected to follow a ledge towards the right (west) at the base of the cliff. It let me only to the prow of the formation, and from there no more progress was possible. I understood why the BLM recommends to come with someone who has done the climb before. Since it was very windy, late, and I was carrying a full camera backpack, I chose to photograph the sunset from that spot. On my way down, I spotted what appeared to be a possible route to the top, a dihedral in the middle of the north face.

The next day, I started to hike in the dark, and after a mile joined the PCT. The Pilot Rock trail was too close to the formation for a view of it within the landscape, so instead, I aimed for a more distant viewpoint. I took the left fork, continuing on the PCT for slightly less than a mile. From its name and aspect on the map, a point marked as Babbit’s Saddle looked promising, and I had timed my arrival there for pre-dawn. Babbit’s Saddle turned out indeed to be the first spot on the trail with open views and was adorned with multicolored wildflowers. However, since the spot is regularly used for backcountry camping, it was looking far from pristine, with a multitude of places on the ground rendered bare from the foot traffic. While making sure to stay on the trail to avoid adding to the impact, by walking away from the saddle, I found a spot where the ground vegetation was more intact, and from there, I made a wide-angle photograph of Pilot Rock bathed by the light of sunrise, with Mt Shasta in the distance.

I hiked a few more miles on the PCT, finding only a few open views, before backtracking to the junction with the Pilot Rock Trail. Since it was a Saturday morning, there were already quite a few hikers ahead of me, and looking at them confirmed that the route to the top was via the diedral. I had hidden my backpack and tripod at the junction, carrying only a belt pack (A 20 year old Lowepro Off Trail) with the Sony A7R3, 24-105, 16-35, and a water bottle. With that lightweight equipment, climbing over the chockstone (class 3) was no problem. The rest of the ascent was an easy and fun scramble. The top offered 360-degrees views as expected, but the landscape below lacked defining features, and in midday light what interested me the most was the close look at the columnar formations. Partly cloudy days are my favorite conditions because if I wait long enough, I can photograph either in hard direct sunlight or the soft light of cloud cover. While waiting for the light, I relax and enjoy the landscape with my eyes. For the wide view, sunlight was preferable. The shadows helped define the shapes, the brightness and contrast kept the emphasis on the land. On the other hand, for the detail view, I preferred soft light, for its even character didn’t distract from the colors and textures. Often strong light is better for large subjects and soft light for small subjects.

Beyond Pilot Rock

There is, of course, much more to the monument than Pilot Rock. The Pacific Crest Trail (PCT) traverses the monument, and is its main hiking trail. It can be accessed at several points, and a short hike will reveal how much diversity is found in those green woods.

In the next post, although Pilot Rock will remain in our sights, I write about other favorite locations I stumbled upon during my visit. In the while, here are a few vignettes from the deep green tapestry that is Cascade Siskiyou National Monument.

(To be continued)

Reader Survey

This blog started in August 2009. During the first 10 years, I published 485 articles, close to one article per week on average. Much changed during that time. Social media had no “algorithmic” timelines, nor “like” buttons. 500px, Instagram and Google+ did not exist yet. The blog outlasted the later. Could it be that blogging is still relevant?

Thank you for reading and putting up with me. At the start, I didn’t know much about the basics of blogging. For instance, in the beginning, I seldom replied to comments. But as the years went by, I’ve tried to become more responsive and write posts that would create some value and be more useful. To help me on this path, I’d be grateful if you would take a few minutes and answer a quick, anonymous, reader survey. If you do not see the questions below, click here to access the survey.

P.S.: The image illustrating this short post represents “the reader”. If you have Treasured Lands, you can notice that the last image in the opening section before the national parks, is a “selfie”, it represents me about to embark on the journey. The book is an invitation to explore, so after going through it, now it is the reader’s turn to go on the journey, and he is represented in that image, the last one of the book. By the way, my friend Tom who was the subject is a seasoned mountaineer, and I generally do not recommend standing close to the edge.

Blue Marble Exhibit, Pacific Art League, Palo Alto

I am honored to be included in a group show with six other local artists entitled “The Blue Marble: Art for the Environment” at the Pacific Art League in Palo Alto, CA.

Astronauts from the Apollo missions recorded for the first time the beauty of the earth from a new perspective: space. Galen Rowell and others consider “Earthrise”, photographed by astronaut William Anders on December 24, 1968 from the lunar orbit, to be “the most influential environmental photograph ever taken”. Last year, on the 50th anniversary of the photograph, Anders mused “We set out to explore the moon and instead discovered the Earth.”

Honoring this point in time, the show references the name given to these famous NASA images. It seeks to find those rays of light through the power of art, telling stories of progress and hope, and celebrating the unique beauty of the planet we all call home, with the goal of encouraging our community to take a more active participation towards solving local issues.

The exhibit runs September 6 – 25, 2019, at the Pacific Art League, 668 Ramona Street, Palo Alto, CA 94301 (650) 321-3891. The gallery is open Monday-Friday 9AM to 5PM and admission is free. There will be an opening reception Friday, September 6 (5:30-8pm) and I hope to meet many of you there.

The Most Critical Step in Self-publishing a Mainstream Photography Book

At some point we all want to leave a legacy, and in photography, short of being archived by a major institution, the clearest path is to publish a well-circulated book. Books travel through the ages. One of my inspirations for Treasured Lands was a hundred-year-old book. If you are thinking about publishing a photography book, or are just curious about the opaque world of book publishing and its economics, read on.

It is a given that you’ll need a great concept, photographs, selection/sequencing, design, editorial matter, and printing, but this article doesn’t touch those aspects, and instead is about the business. No matter how excellent your book is, what is the use if it doesn’t get into enough hands to make an impact? Once you know the subject of the book and its audience, the most critical question is how many copies do you want to sell. That will lead you to the next steps. If that number is below a thousand, then you could maybe handle the sales by yourself, which leave you with 100% of receipts. The problem becomes to find a cost-effective way to print the copies. There are two approaches to printing, print on demand, and offset printing.

Print on demand

Print on demand uses a digital press without plates, basically a high volume digital printer, so the cost of setup is relatively low. You can order as few books as you want, so it is a viable option even if you sell only a hundred copies. You could even use print on demand to order a single copy for a special occasion like an exhibit! While print on demand works just fine with text-based books, for photography books the resulting print quality does not match what can be obtained with a traditional offset press. However, the main obstacle is the high cost per copy for photography books. How high? For instance a single copy of 240-page, 8×10 book costs more than $100 on Blurb, while a 12×12 is a whopping $180. Costs go down for multiple copies, but not that much. You can offer those books as limited edition copies or artist books to your existing audience. On the other hand, selling the book at a price competitive with mainstream, commercially distributed books is impossible.

176 pages, 11 x 8.5 inches, limited edition of 100. Initially offered at $85.

Offset printing

In offset printing (videos) one needs to set up printing plates, which for a photography book often will be a five-figure amount, but once the setup is done, large quantities of pages can be produced at a relatively low cost. Depending on the printing options, the quality can be extremely high, so high as to be indistinguishable from photographic prints. The problem is to be able to order (and sell!) enough books to offset the setup. While short runs are possible, realistically you’d have to print at least a thousand books. Here is a recent quote from the Chinese printer of Treasured Lands for a different 250 page, 11×11 inch book – North American printers are just not competitive for color photography books:
  • 750 copies @ $35.98/cp: total $26,985
  • 1,500 copies @ $22.08/cp: total $33,120
  • 2,500 copies @ $16.25/cp: total $40,625
  • 5,000 copies @ $10.85/cp: total $54,250
Those costs have to be paid upfront, so you are looking at a sizable investment for printing alone. That is on top of the design, editing, project management, and marketing costs. In 2006, Publishers Weekly stated that the average book sells 3,000 copies in its lifetime. That figure has likely gone down since, and photography books are considerably more expensive than the average book, so they naturally sell fewer copies. Most authors do not do it for the money, instead, the game in self-publishing is to avoid losing money.

Treasured Lands second edition. 480 pages, 10 x 12 inches. $50 on Amazon


If you are going to print thousands of books to take advantage of economies of scale, distributing them yourself becomes a significant endeavor. For thousands of books, relying on your fan base will likely not be enough, you’ll need to reach new customers by selling them in bookstores. You’ll have to:
  • Store them. Thousands of photography books can easily fill your garage, so may need to rent storage space.
  • Sell them to bookstores, usually at a 50% discount.
  • Ship them. Photography books are heavy and easily damaged.
  • Invoice and collect payment from many booksellers, most of them ordering just a couple of copies.
  • Handle the returns/restocking/refunds. It’s a little known fact that bookstores reserve the right to return books that have not sold fast enough. Quite a few get damaged in the round-trip.
Book distribution is highly technical, and you can spend a sizeable portion of your time dealing with it. Alternatively, a book distributor can handle all of those tasks for you. Large publishers have their own distribution operation, but small to medium publishers can use the services of book distributors that represent many publishers. For that, they take a commission of at least 25%, which is well earned. The attentive reader will note that your receipts are at most 37% of list price when using distribution, realistically around 33% – small margins!

From a business point of view, securing a distribution contract is the most critical step in self-publishing. You have to do so before you start production at the printer, so they have a warehouse to ship to. Convincing a distributor to distribute your books is similar to convincing a publisher to publish your book. They want to have a sense that your books will sell reasonably, and will use your marketing plan and publishing program to ascertain that. Like with a publisher, the relationship goes both ways. Maybe because many publish for vanity, the publishing industry is full of predatory actors, so you have to make sure you partner with a distributor who has established an excellent reputation and reach. Here is a solid list of book distributors.

500 copies of Treasured Lands (1/10th of the initial print run).

Terra Galleria Press distribution

Three years ago, it would have been difficult for me to secure a great distributor because I had no track record. On the other hand, with no distributor, one cannot sell books in large quantities – the classic bootstrap issue. I went to an existing publisher (with a co-publishing agreement) partly because they were working with a major distributor. In the intervening years, Treasured Lands has done quite well in the marketplace compared to other books by some of the well-known names in photography. This opens doors. The list above describes Ingram as the “world’s largest distributor of books to online and retail stores, schools, and libraries”, and it is a nice bonus that they are based in the San Francisco Bay Area where I live.

We at Terra Galleria Press are very pleased to have secured distribution for our books with such a major distributor as Ingram Publisher Services. We are honored to join a family of distinguished photography book publishers ranging from Aperture to Taschen who are distributed by Ingram Publisher Services. The arrangement was reported last week by the venerable Publishers Weekly.

Terra Galleria Press is a new publisher based in California specializing in photography books. We celebrate the diversity of our natural and cultural heritage. Our goal is to publish beautiful and useful books that inspire readers to embark on a journey of discovery and reconnect with the earth. The press’s initial focus is on books about America’s public lands, with the hope that they will help raise awareness and contribute to their preservation for future generations.

How to Convert Digital Files for Printing: Step by Step Example of RGB/CYMK Conversion

A main technical obstacle in making great prints from digital files is that you are translating an image viewed through the transmissive vehicle of the computer screen to a physical medium which is reflective. In this article, I explain with examples how to compensate for that difference, using as a step by step an improved page in the just released second edition of Treasured Lands.

Fundamental media differences

Modern digital cameras, like film, capture a very wide range of colors. That range is called the gamut. Monitors emit red, green, and blue (RGB) light to create colors, which are added together to generate the pixel color. On the other hand, on paper colors are created by absorbing light with pigments, and the process is subtractive, since adding more pigments results in less light being reflected. Because the process is opposite, opposite colors are used: cyan, magenta, and yellow, with blacK used to enable darker colors (CMYK).

The pigments are subject to physical limitations, so they always reproduce a narrower range of color (a smaller gamut) than available on the screen. This is particularly true of the offset printing presses used for books. For instance, Adobe RGB has a gamut volume of 1,207,500 whereas Fogra39, which characterizes the offset printer used for Treasured Lands, has a volume of 402,100. This means that two-thirds of the colors available in Adobe RGB simply cannot be reproduced in Fogra39. The same limitations apply to a lesser extent to photographic prints, including laser prints and inkjet prints. So even if you are not preparing a book, you can use directly the tips in this article when crafting a fine print. Just replace “convert to CYMK” by “convert to printing profile” in the descriptions and you are set.

Out of Gammut Color: Rododendrons and Redwoods example

Page 49 of Treasured Lands is an image from Redwood National Park in California. If you come between late May and mid-June rhododendrons are in bloom. From an esthetic point of view, although they are very small in the image, the color accent they add is important because their pink create such a contrast with the dark green woods.

By the way, one of the things that attracted me to large format photography 25 years ago is that with the high resolution of large format film, I didn’t have to frame the flowers tight for the detail to be there. The image on this blog may lack detail, but on the printed page, it is readily seen. That is because the image in this post has only 600 pixels across (a level of details equivalent to the thumbnails in the book) but the image on the printed page has the equivalent of 4287 pixels across (12.25 inch at 350dpi).

In my original transparency, as well as in the scan, the blooms are bright. However, if you look at the first edition of Treasured Lands, those blooms look a bit dark. What happened?

Because it had taken so much time to find a publisher (a story for another article), we had to rush the first edition of Treasured Lands in order to release in time for the NPS Centennial. Under this intense time pressure, when the publisher assured me that I could provide them the files in RGB and they would take care of the conversion to CYMK, I acquiesced.

For that image, it turns out that the blooms were out of gamut, meaning that the inks could not reproduce the colors of the blooms, a saturated and bright pink. In that case, to simplify things a bit, the automated RGB to CYMK conversion maps the unprintable color to the nearest printable color, which was a darker pink.

With more time and care, that outcome was entirely predictable. Having taken charge of the entire pre-press process, I fixed it in the second edition of Treasured Lands, whose reproductions are overall more accurate. How?

Setting up soft-proofing

When you work in a color-managed workflow, you use a digital file called an ICC profile to characterize each of your devices. Monitor calibration creates an ICC profile for your monitor. ICC profiles for prints depend on the printer used, and on the printing medium. Sophisticated vendors provide you with an ICC profile for the precise type of print you are making. Once you have downloaded and saved the profile in the appropriate folder on your computer, you can use Photoshop to preview your print by applying the profile, which is called “soft proofing”, as opposed to “hard proofing” with an actual print.

First, save a soft-proof setup (View > Proofup > Custom) with the relevant profile (in my case, Coated Fogra39). The “Rendering intent” specifies how out-of-gamut colors are reproduced. I recommend creating two setups, one with “Perceptual” and the other with “Relative Colorimetric”, Black Point Compensation should be enabled for the later. When you preview the image, you can visualize which one produces the best results. In general, Relative Colorimetric works best. You should use Perceptual only if an important color changes too much using Relative Colorimetric because that Perceptual akes more of the whole picture shift, whereas Relative Colorimetric will shift only a few colors.

Using soft-proofing

Once your soft-proof is set up, you activate it by selecting it (View > Proof Set up > Your_Proof_Name), and then toggling “View > Proof Colors”. As you see below, once activated (checkmark next to “Proof Colors”) the preview shows correctly that the blooms get darker compared to the original file before soft-proofing.

Sometimes, when you soft-proof, you get the impression that the image is dying in front of your eyes. It is because you have a side-by-side comparison, but eventually the relative balance within an image matters more that absolute color. Here is my recommended workflow to optimize the conversion:

  • Bring image in RGB and duplicate it
  • Apply CYMK soft-proof to the duplicate
  • Tweak soft-proofed image (duplicate) so that it “feels” as close to the RGB (original) as possible, using adjustment layers so that the effect can be easily turned on and off for comparison
  • Save the tweaked image separately
  • For production, flatten layers, convert it to CYMK, apply appropriate sharpening
Note that some people convert the image to CYMK and then try to tweak the converted image to feel close to the RGB. I advise against that approach. If problems occur with gamuts, the damage is inflicted at conversion, so tweaking afterwards will not help!

Fixing the rododendrons

For our image, after playing around with hue, saturation and brightness, I determine that in CYMK, although I cannot have saturated light pinks, I can have either saturated dark pinks, or less saturated light pinks. Since color cannot, nor should not exactly be matched between different mediums, what you try to preserve is how the image feels, so that is a subjective decision. Since the feeling that I want to preserve is the brightness of the blooms in the dark forest, I opt for the later. I select the pinks in the image and then selectively desaturate them with a Hue/Saturation adjustment layer (see “Hue/Saturation 1, Layer Mask” on title bar). Here is the image with the tweak, and without proof.

When I apply the proof (note “CYMK Relative Colorimetric” in title bar) the blooms do not become significantly darker compared to the image without soft-proof. Although I have lost a bit of the color of the original, I have gotten around the limitations of the medium to make a print that now conveys the brightness that struck me when I was in the forest.

Two more examples

Intense greens were famously captured by Fuji Velvia, and well captured by digital cameras, but they are challenging in CMYK. In the first example (page 91 of Treasured Lands), you can see that with the default CMYK conversion, the structural texture of the corn lily leaves in Sequoia National Park is barely visible, whereas it has been restored in the custom conversion with lowered saturation. The cave image on the same spread also illustrates the exact same issue.

In the second example (page 208 of Treasured Lands), the default CMYK conversion renders the right part of the colorful cloud above El Capitan in Guadalupe Mountains National Park as a uniform blob. Reducing the saturation and shifting slightly the hue in the custom conversion for the second edition brought back the subtle detail from that superb sunset. See also the other sunset image on the same spread.

What was happening in both examples is that when several distinct out-of-gamut colors get mapped to the same in-gamut color, what in the original image exhibited gradations and texture will be reproduced in the print as a more uniform color area, losing fine differentiations. Since saturated colors are much more likely to be out of gamut than unsaturated colors, often slightly desaturating the problematic colors is enough to fix the problem. In fine printmaking, often less is more!

Treasured Lands Second Edition – An Inside Look

The second edition of Treasured Lands has just been released (order your copy here). That it was the fourth printing in three years shows that the book was successful enough to just reprint without changes. Nevertheless, with each new printing, I had been trying to improve the book. Changes in the second and third printing were small and maintained the page count. With the fourth printing, the sum of them became significant enough to warrant calling it a second edition rather than just a fourth printing, with a new ISBN number. This post summarises the differences while giving at the same time a broad overview of the production process.

Two new national parks

Treasured Lands first publication was timed for the 100th anniversary of the National Park Service in the summer of 2016. Since then, two additional parks have been designated: Gateway Arch National Park in February 2018, and Indiana Dunes National Park in February 2019.

Because they are the newest additions, even though they are among the smallest national parks, I have dedicated four spreads (8 pages) to each of them. Inserting a single page entails changing the multiple references by page numbers for each subsequent page in the book, including in the index, which alone has more than 2,000 lines. At least that wasn’t an issue when I changed the back cover to an image of our latest national park. As of this writing, Treasured Lands is the only photography book to include all 61 U.S. national parks.

Additional locations and photos

I felt that the first edition was a bit unbalanced towards the West Coast – since I live there, I know those parks better. The addition of the two new national parks helped restored the balance. In addition, I have also inserted a new two-page spread for four other midwestern and eastern national parks:
  • Voyageurs National Park
  • Isle Royale National Park
  • Shenandoah National Park
  • Great Smoky Mountains National Park
They were the result of re-visits I did after the book was first published. Some of them were intended to refresh my memory. It is easy to get all the Skyline Drive overlooks mixed up if you don’t have very precise notes! There were also new sights, such as the extraordinary synchronized fireflies. Those additions bring the total number of additional pages to 24. If you compare both editions side by side, you will notice that the new one is slightly thicker. The additional pages and higher quality materials make the book weight increase from 7.4 lbs (3360g) to 7.8 lbs (3545g).

More changes

A number of changes and additions were also made within existing pages, bringing the number of new locations described to 28. I’ll highlight a few of those changes since they would be more easily missed than page additions.

For Cuyahoga Valley National Park, I added one waterfall location, and illustrated it by swapping the top left image in the main spread. This caused the bottom left image on the same spread to feel out of place, so I swapped it as well. I gave one of the replaced images its own page on the information spread, where the larger reproduction size made it possible to appreciate its texture better – this necessitated a change in aspect ratio. The initial page had an interesting backlight theme, yet I think the new spread is more harmonious.

For Joshua Tree National Park, I described an existing location in more detail, adding a thumbnail for illustration. Several other changes were to the text only, in order to make the information more accurate and up to date. Treasured Lands at first appeals because of the photography, but the book contains more than 140,000 words, the equivalent of a 400-page paperback. In January, I conducted an online survey of readers, and was surprised that most of the respondents had read more than 50% of the book’s writing.

Conversely, there are places where I replaced images to improve the design of spreads with minimal text change, such as for the Mesa Verde National Park spread. When you just have one image per spread, like in many art books, you have to worry only about sequencing, but multiple images in a spread are more demanding, since you have to make sure they work well together.

Maps revised

One of the elements that sets Treasured Lands apart from other books is the maps. Some of the few criticisms of the first edition concerned them. An Amazon customer mentioned that they were “not graphically consistent across all Parks”, and David Leland Hyde found them “a bit hard to read due to their tiny type font”. For this edition, I revised each of the maps to address both concerns. Suffices to say for now that this was a complicated process. It is not possible to see the fonts on such small images, but you can readily see in the previous section some of the changes in color scheme.

The image above shows a set of printer “bluelines”. They are a photocopy-quality (as opposed to reproduction quality) mock-up of all of the pages that allow for checking contents in printed form, and I laid out them together visualize the consistency of the maps across the different parks.

Color revised

The previous printings were high quality, but there was still some room for improvement – heard that before? I re-processed individually each image in the book. The details about RGB to CMYK conversions are the subject of another article that you will want to read if you are making fine art prints. For now, let’s look at an overview of the process. Once the bluelines have been approved, the printer sent me a set of digital proofs, one for each page in the book. Those are inkjet prints that simulate precisely what the press output would look like. I used for reference a previous printing of the book, as well as prints made on my Epson 9800. I marked the corrections to be made on each relevant page, and sent the set back to the printer. Click on image to enlarge and see if you would have agreed with my correction.

The printer sent me a second set of proofs for the pages where I had requested corrections. Although express Trans-Pacific shipping isn’t cheap and the printer charges for proofs, it is easy to go overboard on this process and do multiple iterations. Fortunately, with the delay caused by the inclusion of Indiana Dunes National Park, there was time pressure, so I limited myself to two rounds. After the final proofs were returned, they would be used as a reference by the pressmen to match the output of the printing press. Click on image to enlarge and see if you can spot the differences.

The subtle hues of the dawn light in Glacier Bay are challenging to print. Here is a comparison between two of the previous printings of Treasured Lands, the reference inkjet print, and a proof for the second edition. Aren’t you surprised by the variations between all the printings? Click on image to enlarge and see if the corrections in the second edition go towards better color accuracy.

A new publisher

At this point, you may wonder why I had been doing all this complicated design and production work, instead of the publisher. The answer is that to release this edition, I established my own publishing company, unsurprisingly named Terra Galleria Press, accompanied by new printing and distribution agreements.

Because of my previous particular “hybrid publishing” agreement with the excellent local boutique publisher Cameron+Company, I had considerable control, at the cost of a high investment. The resulting royalty share made it possible to offer the book for a relatively low price (for what you get). However, in the past, for each change, I had to instruct an editor, sometimes wait for a designer to get involved, while they were understandably busy on other projects. Communications with the printer and distributor also had to be relayed. By taking charge of the production, I was able to act more efficiently. This enabled me to stop the printing and add a new national park chapter in less than two weeks. I also suspect the publishing team’s patience would have been taxed by my numerous incremental revisions and the resulting back-and-forth.

Since I believe that more than ever, this book should be on every table, with one middleman out, I was able to keep the retail price the same $65 despite the rise in production costs and this insistence of my publishing consultant that it was a $80 book. However, taking total charge of the publishing means that even more so, the investment and risk fall squarely on me, while I am the tiniest of publishers. As a consequence, I depend more than ever on readers to pass the word around. I would be grateful for your help.

Visiting Anhui’s Ancient Villages

Shanghai is China’s most populous and properous city, while Mount Huangshan is China’s most well known national park. As the country is marching towards urbanization and industrialization, traditional villages have largely disappeared or changed during the last century. Located in South Anhui province, Hongcun and Xidi are rare surviving examples of those traditional villages.

Designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site, the villages are now popular attractions, and I recommend to combine them with a visit to nearby Mount Huangshan. They have been developed quite tastefully and their character is well preserved, making them an excellent place to appreciate China’s history and traditions.

Both villages were built by successful officials or merchants returning home and were a model of conventional Chinese village construction from the 14th and to the 20th centuries. The overall layout and architecture retain the original features of traditional non-urban settlements of China created during a feudal period. They share a similar architecture and street plan, with most streets being narrow alleys which are very picturesque. The size of the villages make it possible to see everything within a few hours of walking. Within each village, you’ll also find a number of historic buildings, mostly large halls, open to visitation.

The villages are surrounded by mountains and remarkable for the utilization of water in a different way. Hongcun is famous for its two pools, the Moon Pond in the center of the village and the larger South Pond. The reflections evoke coexistence and the harmony of man and nature and are an inspiration for hundreds of art students who descend daily in the village to sketch and paint. Maybe because of this classic scene, Hongcun is very busy for most of the day. In the evening, shops remain open quite late, and lights adorn the streets.

Xidi is built along and between three streams running east-west, and those streams running within the village’s streets make them distinctive. Xidi was noticeably quieter than Hongcun, especially in the early mornings and late afternoons, which made for a nicer experience. I saw many residents engaged in traditional activities such as working in the nearby fields, which came as a surprise given that the village is a tourist attraction.

A hill south of the village, as well as a multi-storied hotel within the village, whose rooftop is accessible for a small fee, give access to interesting bird eye’s views that let you have a good look at the distinctive rooftops.

For both villages, visitors park in a large lot outside. No private vehicles are allowed into the villages, and the only motorized transportation you’ll see are service vehicles used by villagers. To navigate the narrow streets, they are the size of a golf cart. A few hotels and hostels are tucked inside the villages, some of them quite hidden away from the main streets. Staying there allows you to enjoy the relative quiet of early morning before the opening of the shops (most of them sell traditional crafts) and the arrival of tour groups. In photographing streets, while I try to avoid including tourists, I look for villagers.

Many ancient-looking areas in China have been re-built or restored for tourism. The ancient villages of Anhui are the real thing, and despite the development, you can still catch glimpses of traditional village life there.

More images of Hongcun
More images of Xidi

Cloudless in the Yellow (Huangshan) Mountains

The scenery of steep peaks and ancient pine trees emerging out of mist and floating above a sea of clouds is an iconic subject in Chinese representations of the landscape. Since the Tang Dynasty around the 8th century, the inspiration for these paintings is the most famous of the Chinese mountains, Mount Huangshan, or Yellow Mountains, which has been called ‘the loveliest mountain of China’. Does the reality live up to those images?

Mount Huangshan is a granite massif consisting of 36 separate peaks, culminating above 1,800 meters. It is located about 450 km east of Shanghai and 250 km east of Hangzhou. In the past, long-distance bus travel was necessary, but a few years ago, high-speed train service and flights to the gateway town of Huangshan City have become available. No private vehicle is allowed into Mount Huangshan scenic area, instead, you board a bus that takes you to a trailhead or cable-car station.

Even though the cable cars save you about 2-3 hours of steep walking, once you get to the top, you’ll have to do a fair amount of walking to explore the complex of peaks, and most of the trails are up and down with steep stairs. From the cable-car station, it took an hour to walk to our hotel, so I was glad that I packed light. Most visitors stay at the base of the mountain, where hotels are affordable, and visit the mountain as a day trip. However, there are a few hotels located on the top of the mountain. Staying there let you to easily catch sunrise and sunset and enjoy some relatively quieter hours, but this comes at a cost. For a party of three, the least expensive room we were able to find at the Beihai Hotel cost over $400 (for comparison, a nicer double room within walking of the Bund in Shanghai cost $75) and meals were quite pricy.

From a photographic point of view, the key to great photographs on Mount Huangshan is the right amount of legendary low clouds. This is one place where weather is the subject. Inside and near the hotels, I saw many photographs displayed. Hardly any of them did not feature low clouds or mist. Without them, the mountain just doesn’t have the same allure and mystery, however, when the cloud cover is too dense, you don’t see anything at all. It usually takes more than a day to observe the right conditions. Low clouds form during or after rainy days. The area is very moist, and I saw a sign indicating that they were present on average 3 out of 4 days. The most favorable period is September to May, as summer tends to be drier. I visited at the beginning of May.

As the first day was mostly overcast and without low clouds, I focused mostly on the flora, especially the shurbs in bloom. We hiked in the late afternoon to Purple Cloud Peak. The scenery from there wasn’t great, but the location would have offered a view of the sun setting, and as such was quite popular despite the steep climb, even though the conditions were not promising at all. As expected, no color occurred at sunset. The second day was more clear, but it was still lacking low clouds. With no precipitation in the forecast for the next few days, and given the high cost of the hotel, we decided to spend only one night at the top.

For sunrise, we went to the viewpoint named “A Monkey Gazing at the sea” after a characteristic rock, planning to arrive there half an hour prior to sunrise. This was a big miscalculation! A photographer in our party had already been to Yellow Mountain four times, and I assume that in his previous visits, such timing had proved adequate, but not this time, probably due to increasing popularity. As the viewpoint is less than fifteen minutes from the Beihai Hotel, the limited number of spots with a view of the eastern sky were already all staked. I had to content myself with a photograph in a different direction, isolating a few pinnacles with a telephoto lens. It looks like the other visitors were there to watch the sunrise. Merely a few minutes after the event, they began to leave, after which I was able to squeeze in and make a few photographs with some color in the eastern sky, although my compositions were limited by the available positions.

Half an hour after sunrise, the overlooks were mostly empty. I found that on this cloudless day, photographing backlit was the best way to create a bit of atmosphere thanks to the receding ridges. Backlight also helped emphasized characteristic shapes, both of the rock pinnacles and the uniquely local Pinus Huangshanensis which clings precariously clinging to cliffs.

As the day progressed, crowds grew steadily again. Guides used amplified speakers to herd large tour groups. Cell phone service was working in most places, with a strong signal. When I made a phone call to my wife, with all the voices in the background, she thought that I was in some kind of public market rather than on the top of a mountain! Yosemite’s Mist Trail sounded quaint in comparison. It is ironic that all the misty images from Mount Huanghuan evoke the peace and solitude of nature, whereas the place, as the most famous mountain in China, is a prime example of a location overran by Chinese mass tourism. And this was a weekday in May. I can only imagine what a weekend of summer would have been.

Besides the multiple cable cars and several large hotels at the top of the mountain complex, porters are available to carry luggage and even visitors on sedan chairs. They also shoulder all the food sold on the mountain, which may explain its high cost. Some tourists, instead of the hiking gear expected in such a place, wear chic clothing so they look good in photos. The trails are all paved with excellent craftmanship that includes guardrails, drainage system, and traction-maximizing texture. Compared to U.S. national parks, that level of development was striking and certainly contributes to the high visitation. On the other hand, erosion and litter were well-controlled, and it looks like the authorities have managed to achieve some level of protection for the place in spite of its popularity. The natural beauty remains extraordinary, even on a cloudless day.